Why Do All The Planets Orbit In The Same Plane?
“So why are all the planets in the same plane? Because they form from an asymmetric cloud of gas, which collapses in the shortest direction first; the matter goes “splat” and sticks together; it contracts inwards but winds up spinning around the center, with planets forming from imperfections in that young disk of matter; they all wind up orbiting in the same plane, separated only by a few degrees — at most — from one another.”
When we look out not only at our own solar systems, but at the solar systems we’ve found around other stars, we find they have a remarkable feature in common: their planets all appear to rotate in the same plane. They might be off by a handful of degrees, but as far as we can tell, they all align with one another. This isn’t some mere coincidence, but seems to be a consequence of how solar systems form in the first place. Just as spiral galaxies orbit in the same, single plane, so do solar systems. Remarkably, it seems to be the same process at play: large structures collapse, which they do faster in one direction, and then angular momentum takes over, forming a disk. Over time, imperfections in the disk fragment, causing clumps to form and grow over time. When all is said and done, the survivors are all left in the same, single plane.