Ask Ethan: How Fast Could Life Have Arisen In The Universe?
“How soon after the Big Bang would there have been enough heavy elements to form planets and possibly life?”
Making anything in this Universe takes time. After the Big Bang, there are a whole slew the Universe needed to take before rocky planets and life were possible. This includes the formation of atomic nuclei, neutral atoms, dense enough gas clouds to make stars, multiple generations of stars living-and-dying, and only then will the Universe be filled with the right ingredients to create rocky worlds and, potentially, life. But Earth didn’t come into existence until more than 9 billion years after the Big Bang, and these ingredients were around long before that. The heavy elements from the first supernovae could have made rocky, Earth-like planets very early on, but interestingly enough, it takes longer to form enough carbon to make life a reasonable possibility.