What Was It Like When The Universe Was At Its Hottest?
“At the inception of the hot Big Bang, the Universe reaches its hottest, densest state, and is filled with matter, antimatter, and radiation. The imperfections in the Universe — nearly perfectly uniform but with inhomogeneities of 1-part-in-30,000 — tell us how hot it could have gotten, and also provide the seeds from which the large-scale structure of the Universe will grow. Immediately, the Universe begins expanding and cooling, becoming less hot and less dense, and making it more difficult to create anything requiring a large or energy: E = mc2 means that creating a massive particle requires at least enough energy.
Over time, the expanding and cooling Universe will drive an enormous number of changes. But for one brief moment, everything was symmetric, and as energetic as possible. Somehow, over time, these initial conditions created the entire Universe.”
As soon as the Universe was filled with matter, antimatter, and radiation in the hot, dense state known as the Big Bang, it begins to expand and cool. For one brief moment, the Universe reached its maximum temperature and density, and had enough energy to spontaneously create anything at all that Einstein’s energy-mass equivalence would allow. But this state not only wouldn’t last, but it also was never arbitrarily or infinitely hot! There’s a limit to how energetic the Universe could have ever been, and we’ve determined it’s at least 1000 times smaller than the Planck scale. This is still trillions of times more energetic than anything the LHC ever created.