Which Worlds Will Survive When The Sun Dies?
“But the Sun will be so hot and so bright that much of the outer Solar System will be absolutely destroyed. Each of the gas giants has a ringed system; although Saturn’s is the most famous, all four of them have rings. These rings are mostly made of various ices, such as water ice, methane ice, and carbon dioxide. With the extreme energies given off by the Sun, not only will these ices melt/boil away, but the individual molecules will be so energetic that they will be ejected from the Solar System.”
When the Sun becomes a red giant, lots of changes are going to happen. Mercury and Venus will surely become engulfed; Earth and Mars will lose their atmospheres and oceans, becoming barren and charred. But even beyond that, the outer worlds and structures in the Solar System will melt and lose their volatiles. Asteroids will lose mass and become rocky/metallic cores; moons like Europa and Enceladus will melt away; the rings around the gas giants will disappear; even Pluto and the other large Kuiper Belt objects will lose their atmospheres and top layers, melting away until they’re only a rock-and-metal core.