This One Thought Experiment Shows Why Special Relativity Isn’t The Full Story
“In Einstein’s initial formulation of General Relativity way back in 1916, he mentioned the gravitational redshift (and blueshift) of light as a necessary consequence of his new theory, and the third classical test, after the precession of Mercury’s perihelion (already known at the time) and the deflection of starlight by a gravitational source (discovered during a total solar eclipse in 1919).
Although a thought experiment is an extremely powerful tool, practical experiments didn’t catch up until 1959, where the Pound-Rebka experiment finally measured a gravitational redshift/blueshift directly. Yet just by invoking the idea that energy must be conserved, and a basic understanding of particle physics and gravitational fields, we can learn that light must change its frequency in a gravitational field.”
If a photon flies through space towards Earth, it must gain energy and become bluer in nature as it approaches Earth’s surface. This idea, of a gravitational redshift or blueshift, dictates how a photon must change in energy in the presence of a gravitational field. Yet this effect, which only exists in General Relativity, could have been predicted as soon as special relativity was discovered by one simple thought experiment: to consider a particle-antiparticle pair dropped from high above the surface of the Earth, but to let the annihilation occur at varying locations.