Category: far future

Which Worlds Will Survive When The Sun Dies?

“But the Sun will be so hot and so bright that much of the outer Solar System will be absolutely destroyed. Each of the gas giants has a ringed system; although Saturn’s is the most famous, all four of them have rings. These rings are mostly made of various ices, such as water ice, methane ice, and carbon dioxide. With the extreme energies given off by the Sun, not only will these ices melt/boil away, but the individual molecules will be so energetic that they will be ejected from the Solar System.”

When the Sun becomes a red giant, lots of changes are going to happen. Mercury and Venus will surely become engulfed; Earth and Mars will lose their atmospheres and oceans, becoming barren and charred. But even beyond that, the outer worlds and structures in the Solar System will melt and lose their volatiles. Asteroids will lose mass and become rocky/metallic cores; moons like Europa and Enceladus will melt away; the rings around the gas giants will disappear; even Pluto and the other large Kuiper Belt objects will lose their atmospheres and top layers, melting away until they’re only a rock-and-metal core.

Who will survive, who will transform, and who will be annihilated when the Sun dies? The carnage is severe, but not complete. Get all the details here.

Ask Ethan: Will Future Civilizations Miss The Big Bang?

“If intelligent life re-emerges in our solar system in a few billion years, only a few points of light will still be visible in the sky. What kind of theory of the universe will those beings concoct? It is almost certain to be wrong. Why do we think that what we can view now can lead us to a “correct” theory when a few billion years before us, things might have looked completely different?”

Incredibly, the Universe we know and love today won’t be the way it is forever. If we were born in the far future, perhaps a hundred billion years from now, we wouldn’t have another galaxy to look at for a billion light years: hundreds of times more distant than the closest galaxies today. Our local group will merge into a single, giant elliptical galaxy, and there will be no sign at all of young stars, of star-forming regions, of other galaxies, or even of the Big Bang’s leftover glow. If we were born in the far future, we might miss the Big Bang as the correct origin of our Universe. It makes one wonder, when you think about it in those terms, if we’re missing something essential about our Universe today? In the 13.8 billion years that have passed, could we already have lost some essential information about the history of our Universe?

And in the far future, might we see something that, as of right now, hasn’t yet grown to prominence? Let’s explore this and see what you think!