Ask Ethan: How Do Hawking Radiation And Relativistic Jets Escape From A Black Hole?
“Everything you read about a black indicates that “nothing, not even light, can escape them”. Then you read that there is Hawking radiation, which “is blackbody radiation that is predicted to be released by black holes”. Then there are relativistic jets that “shoot out of black holes at close to the speed of light”. Obviously, something does come out of black holes, right?”
When it comes to black holes, the cardinal rule is that there exists an event horizon: a region from which nothing inside can ever escape. Once you cross over, you can never get out. No matter how fast you move, how quickly or what direction you accelerate in, or even if you travel at the speed of light, your inevitable destiny lies at the central singularity. So how, then, are things like relativistic jets and Hawking radiation emitted from black holes? The key to understanding them lies in examining the conditions that occur outside the event horizon, in the region near (but not exactly at) the black hole itself. This is the critical environment where spacetime is curved, matter achieves relativistic speeds, and the quantum fields themselves are affected by relativity.