Category: lifetime

This Is Why Two Higgs Bosons Don’t Have …

This Is Why Two Higgs Bosons Don’t Have The Same Mass As One Another

“In this quantum Universe, every particle will have properties that are inherently uncertain, as many of the measurable properties are changed by the act of measurement itself, even if you measure a property other than the one you wish to know. While we might talk about photon or electron uncertainties most commonly, some particles are also unstable, which means their lifetime is not pre-determined from the moment of their creation. For those classes of particles, their inherent energy, and therefore their mass, is inherently variable, too.

While we might be able to state the mass of the average unstable particle of a particular variety, like the Higgs boson or the top quark, each individual particle of that type will have its own, unique value. Quantum uncertainty can now be convincingly extended all the way to the rest energy of an unstable, fundamental particle. In a quantum Universe, even a property as basic as mass itself can never be set in stone.”

Create an electron, and there will be a certain set of properties that you’ll know for certain, irrespective of any quantum uncertainty. You’ll know its mass, its electric charge, its intrinsic angular momentum, and many other properties as well. But that’s because the electron itself is a fundamentally stable particle: it’s lifetime is infinite, with no uncertainty. This isn’t true for many of the particles of the Standard Model, though, with the heaviest particles like the Higgs boson, the W and Z bosons, and the top quark having the shortest lifetime. Well, there’s also an energy-time uncertainty relation, and that means that the shorter your lifetime is, the bigger your inherent uncertainty in your energy is. Now, combine that with the knowledge that E = mc^2, and what do you get? 

An inherently uncertain mass. Yes, it’s true: every top quark you create has a unique mass that’s different from every other top quark. Come find out the science behind this remarkable property of nature!