Category: primeval fireball

Ask Ethan: Will Future Civilizations Miss The Big Bang?

“If intelligent life re-emerges in our solar system in a few billion years, only a few points of light will still be visible in the sky. What kind of theory of the universe will those beings concoct? It is almost certain to be wrong. Why do we think that what we can view now can lead us to a “correct” theory when a few billion years before us, things might have looked completely different?”

Incredibly, the Universe we know and love today won’t be the way it is forever. If we were born in the far future, perhaps a hundred billion years from now, we wouldn’t have another galaxy to look at for a billion light years: hundreds of times more distant than the closest galaxies today. Our local group will merge into a single, giant elliptical galaxy, and there will be no sign at all of young stars, of star-forming regions, of other galaxies, or even of the Big Bang’s leftover glow. If we were born in the far future, we might miss the Big Bang as the correct origin of our Universe. It makes one wonder, when you think about it in those terms, if we’re missing something essential about our Universe today? In the 13.8 billion years that have passed, could we already have lost some essential information about the history of our Universe?

And in the far future, might we see something that, as of right now, hasn’t yet grown to prominence? Let’s explore this and see what you think!

How Does Our Earliest Picture Of The Universe Show Us Dark Matter?

“So all you need to do, to know whether your Universe has dark matter or not, is to measure these temperature fluctuations that appear in the CMB! The relative heights, locations, and numbers of the peaks that you see are caused by the relative abundances of dark matter, normal matter, and dark energy, as well as the expansion rate of the Universe. Quite importantly, if there is no dark matter, you only see half as many total peaks! When we compare the theoretical models with the observations, there’s an extremely compelling match to a Universe with dark matter, effectively ruling out a Universe without it.”

If your young Universe is full of matter and radiation, what happens? Gravitation works to pull matter into the overdense regions, but that means that the radiation pressure must rise in those regions, too, and that pushes back against the matter. On small scales, this pushback washes out the gravitational growth, but on large-enough scales, the finite speed that light can travel means that no wash-out can happen. Dark matter, however, doesn’t collide with radiation or normal matter, while normal matter collides with both radiation and itself. If we can calculate exactly how these three species interplay, we can calculate what types of patterns we expect to see in the Big Bang’s leftover glow, and then compare it with what we observe with satellites like WMAP and Planck. And what have we seen, exactly, when we’ve done that? 

We see that the Universe must contain dark matter to explain the observations. No alternative theory can match it.