This Is Why Three Of The Lightest Elements Are So Cosmically Rare
“When you smash a high-energy particle into a massive nucleus, the large nucleus splits apart into a variety of component particles. This process, known as spallation, is how the majority of lithium, beryllium, and boron was formed in our Universe. These are the only elements in the Universe that are primarily formed by this process, rather than by stars, stellar remnants, or the Big Bang itself.
When you look at how abundant all of the elements we know of are, there’s a superficially surprising dearth of the 3rd, 4th, and 5th lightest elements of all. There’s an enormous gulf between helium and carbon, and at last we know why. The only way to produce these cosmic rarities is by a chance collision of particles streaking across the Universe, and that’s why there’s only a few billionths the amount of any of these elements compared to carbon, oxygen and helium. Cosmic ray spallation is the only way to make them once we’ve entered the age of stars, and billions of years later, even these trace elements are essential to the book of life.”
If you were to measure the abundance of each of the elements on the periodic table, you’d find that hydrogen was the most abundant element in the Universe, followed by helium, oxygen, and then carbon. Many other elements show up hot on their heels, including nitrogen, neon, iron, magnesium and silicon. But way, way down, at only around a billionth of these elements, can you find elements like lithium, beryllium and boron. This is surprising, because these are elements number 3, 4 and 5 on the periodic table!