This Is Why The Multiverse Must Exist
“This picture, of huge Universes, far bigger than the meager part that’s observable to us, constantly being created across this exponentially inflating space, is what the Multiverse is all about. It’s not a new, testable scientific prediction, but rather a theoretical consequence that’s unavoidable, based on the laws of physics as they’re understood today. Whether the laws of physics are identical to our own in those other Universes is unknown.
If you have an inflationary Universe that’s governed by quantum physics, a Multiverse is unavoidable. As always, we are collecting as much new, compelling evidence as we can on a continuous basis to better understand the entire cosmos. It may turn out that inflation is wrong, that quantum physics is wrong, or that applying these rules the way we do has some fundamental flaw. But so far, everything adds up. Unless we’ve got something wrong, the Multiverse is inevitable, and the Universe we inhabit is just a minuscule part of it.”
Skeptical about the Multiverse? You’re not alone. After all, how can you be confident that something must exist if the experimental, measurable, or observational evidence that’s required to validate its existence isn’t located within our observable Universe? It’s a reasonable thought, but there are ways to know something that go beyond verifying the exact phenomenon we’re looking for. This is why theoretical physics is so powerful: it not only allows you to draw conclusions about things you have not yet observed, but about things you cannot observe at all.
Come find out how, and learn why the Multiverse really must exist.
How Much Of The Unobservable Universe Will We Someday Be Able To See?
“You might think that if we waited for an arbitrarily long amount of time, we’d be able to see an arbitrarily far distance, and that there would be no limit to how much of the Universe would become visible.
But in a Universe with dark energy, that simply isn’t the case. As the Universe ages, the expansion rate doesn’t drop to lower and lower values, approaching zero. Instead, there remains a finite and important amount of energy intrinsic to the fabric of space itself. As time goes on in a Universe with dark energy, the more distant objects will appear to recede from our perspective faster and faster. Although there’s still more Universe out there to discover, there’s a limit to how much of it will ever become observable to us.”
The Universe is a huge, vast, enormous place. It’s been 13.8 billion years since the Big Bang occurred, which translates into an observable Universe that’s 46 billion light years to its edge, and contains some 2 trillion galaxies in various stages of evolutionary development. But that’s not the end of what we’ll ever be able to observe. As time goes on, light that’s presently on its way to our eyes will eventually catch up, revealing a future visibility limit that’s even larger than the present observable Universe. When we add it all up, we’ll find that we more than double the number of galaxies we can observe, even though we can barely reach 1% of them.
How does this all work? Find out the limits of the observable and unobservable Universe today!
An Ultra-Short History Of The Entire Universe
“This hot, primordial soup expanded and cooled, creating a slight asymmetry between matter (slightly more) and antimatter (slightly less). The cooling continued, nuclei formed, and eventually, so did neutral atoms.
These atoms clumped together in gravitationally overdense regions, forming the first stars after tens of millions of years.”
In the beginning, before even the Big Bang, all that we had was space and time, expanding rapidly according to the rules of cosmological inflation. Today, we’ve got an observable Universe full of stars and galaxies, tens of billions of light years across, with at least one instance of intelligent life: on Earth.
The story of how we got to be here was a mystery to philosophers, theologists and poets for all of human history, but advances during the last century have brought that from the realm of the speculative to firm, scientific knowledge. We understand, at least in broad strokes, how the Universe began, evolved, and came to be the way it is today, from before the Big Bang to human intelligence here on Earth.
Want to see what that entire story looks like in a mere 200 words? Come get it today!
This Is How We Will Discover The Most Distant Galaxy Ever
“Sometime in the distant past, likely when the Universe was less than 2% its current age, the very first galaxy of all formed when massive star clusters merged together, resulting in an unprecedented burst of star formation. The high-energy light from these stars struggles to escape, but the longer-wavelength light can penetrate farther through neutral atoms. The expansion of the Universe redshifts all the light, stretching it far beyond anything Hubble could potentially observe, but next-generation infrared telescopes should be able to catch it. And if we observe the right part of the sky, with the right instruments, for a sufficiently long time to reveal the right details about these objects, we’ll push back the cosmic frontier of the first galaxies even farther.
Somewhere, the most distant, first galaxy of all is out there, waiting to be discovered. As the 2020s approach, we can feel confident that we’ll not only shatter the current cosmic record-holder, but we know exactly how we’ll do it.”
13.8 billion years ago, our Universe as-we-know-it began with the hot Big Bang. There were no stars or galaxies back then; there weren’t even bound structures of any type. Everything was too energetic, and would immediately be destroyed by the unfathomably high temperatures and energies that every particle possessed. Yet, with time, the Universe expanded and cooled. Protons, nuclei, and neutral atoms formed; overdense regions gravitationally pulled-in mass and matter; stars were born, lived, died, and new stars were born in their aftermath. At some point, the first large star clusters merged together, passing a critical threshold and forming the first galaxy in the Universe.
That’s what we want to find. We’ve gone back to when the Universe was just 3% its present age, but that’s not enough. We must go father. We must find the first one. Here’s how we’ll do it.
What Was It Like When Life In The Universe First Became Possible?
“We still don’t know how life in the Universe got its start, or whether life as we know it is common, rare, or a once-in-a-Universe proposition. But we can be certain that life came about in our cosmos at least once, and that it was built out of the heavy elements made from previous generations of stars. If we look at how stars theoretically form in young star clusters and early galaxies, we could reach that abundance threshold after several hundred million years; all that remains is putting those atoms together in a favorable-to-life arrangement. If we form the molecules necessary for life and put them in an environment conducive to life arising from non-life, suddenly the emergence of biology could have come when the Universe was just a few percent of its current age. The earliest life in the Universe, we must conclude, could have been possible before it was even a billion years old.”
When the Universe was first born, life was absolutely impossible. There were no planets for life to reside on; there were no organic molecules to self-replicate; there were no energy gradients or sources of heat and light; there weren’t even heavy elements or neutral atoms. In order for life to exist, the Universe had quite a bit of work to do.
Our Earth formed after more than 9 billion years of cosmic evolution, and life began on our planet shortly after that. But there’s no reason to believe that Earth is the only world with life on it; in fact, if we put everything we know about the Universe together, many other locations should have gotten there billions of years earlier.
Here’s the cosmic story of when life could have first arisen in the Universe, and it comes not only before us, but before most people have ever dared imagine.
This Is How We Know There Are Two Trillion Galaxies In The Universe
“Over time, galaxies merged together and grew, but small, faint galaxies still remain today. Even in our own Local Group, we’re still discovering galaxies that contain mere thousands of stars, and the number of galaxies we know of have increased to more than 70. The faintest, smallest, most distant galaxies of all are continuing to go undiscovered, but we know they must be there. For the first time, we can scientifically estimate how many galaxies are out there in the Universe.
The next step in the great cosmic puzzle is to find and characterize as many of them as possible, and understand how the Universe grew up. Led by the James Webb Space Telescope and the next generation of ground-based observatories, including LSST, GMT, and the ELT, we’re poised to reveal the hitherto unseen Universe as never before.”
How many galaxies are there in the Universe? If you had asked Carl Sagan a generation ago, the answer might have been something vague, like billions and billions. Just a decade or two ago, people would have guesstimated around 100 billion, as deep surveys from Hubble could give us a count of galaxies both near-and-far in a small region of the sky. But those estimates aren’t necessarily any good, except to serve as lower limits. In order to understand how many galaxies must truly be out there, it requires us to understand both what the Universe is made of and what constitutes a galaxy. Only in the last few years have we reached that level of sophistication, and come up with what we believe, for the first time, is an accurate number.
That number? Two trillion. There are two trillion galaxies in the Universe. This is the story of how we know.
These Are The Most Distant Objects We’ve Ever Discovered In The Universe
“For planets of any type, the quasar RX J1131-1231, lensed by rogue planets, holds the record: 3.9 billion light-years distant. The most distant normal star is known as Icarus, 9 billion light-years away, lensed and magnified by a massive galaxy cluster. 23 billion light-years away is the most distant supernova ever seen: SN 1000+0216.”
Our quest to learn about the Universe is a quest of ever-receding horizons. From planets, moons, and other objects in our Solar System to stars, galaxies, quasars, and gamma-ray bursts, we just keep shattering records as far distance goes. Improvements in technology, technique, and increased observing time allow us to reveal things that simply couldn’t be observed previously. Yet we’re by no means done, just because we’ve set a slew of new records in the opening two decades of the 21st century. With the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope, the hope of a Planet Nine, and the advent of 30-meter-class astronomy from the ground, the records we know and adore today may all be in the rear-view mirror just a few years from now.
What are the most distant objects of all different types in the Universe? Get the 2018 update right now!